Special economic zones are created on the territory of the region for investment and innovative activity stimulation, regional production diversification, labor market harmonization and solution of some other social and economic problems. A special economic zone is the limited territory with a special legal status and preferential economic terms. Special economic zones can be trade, industrial and production, technology development, service and complex. This concept can be used as a super concept for a group of territories with the special legal status (and then industrial parks, science and technology parks and technopolises represent special cases of special economic zones) or as the name of a separate type of special zones. Industrial parks, being guided by the first definition, are is possible to be referred to industrial and production zones, and technopolises and science and technology parks — to technology development.
Industrial park is a specially organized territory intended for new productions placing; it is provided with necessary infrastructure and administrative and legal conditions, it is managed by the specialized company. Obligatory signs of the industrial park are industrial lands, existence of a management company, providing legal conditions for residents placing.
Industrial parity is a synonym of industrial park. Existence of a management company is also obligatory for it. The management company disposes the property of the park and internal infrastructure.
First of all, placing on the territory of the industrial park can be interesting for small and medium-sized companies for which outsourcing of some types of activity and access to capital-intensive infrastructure allows to increase competitiveness. Besides, residents of the industrial park can have tax preferences on regional taxes.
Sometimes the "industrial park" concept is mixed with the "science and technology park" concept. However the science and technology park differs by the fact that science and production integration is supposed on its territory. On the territory of science and Technology Park there are not only production companies, but also research, education, development companies. Business incubators and centers of technologies transfer that can also be a part of science and Technology Park. Thus, the science and technology park assumes creation of production with a high value added.
Technopolis represents a larger zone compared to the science and technology park. In the capital "Moscow" technopolis operates residents of which in addition to the access to infrastructure and tax privileges, can use the simplified export and import of innovative products and materials for scientific researches of the enterprises registration procedures, due to the opening of scientific innovative customs post in 2013. In Kaliningrad Region the "GS Technopolis" operates including the industrial zone, residential zone, research center, educational zone and business incubator. Technopolis settles down in a special economic zone where the regime of free customs area is introduced.
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