Why industrial parks are empty?
According to Association of industrial parks, in 2013 number of the operating industrial parks in Russia made 45 objects that exceeds the parameter of 2012 by quarter. 56 more parks were under construction. Industrial parks were located in 40 regions of Russia. Location in industrial park is the most profitable for the productions needing an expensive infrastructure, such as, for example, waste treatment facilities for chemical industry. Thus, the industrial park is capable to create favorable conditions for a cluster formation.
Despite a significant growth of workplaces number and consolidated revenues of science and technology parks residents in 2013, about a half of the industrial parks areas was empty. The share of free areas varied considerably from park to park. Of course, while the concept of object development creation its gradual filling is planned, however, this process can be slowed down by a number of factors.
First of all, high rental rates can discourage investors. Rates of land lease are formed on the basis of a cadastral assessment. The high rental rates could be compensated by existence of finished infrastructure, creation of which is beyond the scope of a separate company, the speed of production start and synergetic effect from cooperation with other residents will serve for the benefit of the enterprise.
Corruption of authorities can be the second reason slowing down the industrial park development. Despite the administrative support of investors and barriers decrease declared by the majority of regions, the real situation can differ for the worse.
The third reason is division of the areas inappropriate to demand: if the industrial park provides too big areas, process of residents search risks to be delayed. It is especially actual for the parks focused on small business. The crutial role for the investor is played by the fact whether the earth or the building is leased or is possible to be purchased.
The specialized industrial park can attract residents, having provided an access to limited resources. For example, in chemical park of Iran the ethylene is brought to platforms which is a raw material for production of polyethylene, ethylene oxide — a basis for a large number of goods, vinyl chloride which is used for further synthesis of polyvinylchloride. In Russia chemical productions incur a deficit of ethylene. The main problem of many productions is high power consumption therefore privileges on electric power payment can become a powerful advantage of the park. For example, in industrial park of Volgorechensk in Kostroma region it is supposed to establish electricity cost at the level of 2 rubles for a kilowatt. For comparison for the 2nd half of 2014 the straight-line tariff for the NN voltage range was established at the level of 2,78 rubles, for CH-II range — 2,35 rubles, for CH-I — 2,78 rubles.
However, despite the listed restrictions, industrial parks are a necessary part of infrastructure providing investments inflow applied worldwide.