The second half of the twentieth century in Russia was connected with large-scale industrial construction. First of all, the enterprises producing means of production (production of construction materials, mechanical engineering, processing of metals, chemical industry) were created, but also light industry, woodworking, pulp and paper industry showed high rates. Such cities as Chelyabinsk, Yekaterinburg, Lipetsk, Omsk, Perm, Ufa, Cherepovets, Volgograd and others became large industrial centers. The industry became the city-forming element and defined the direction of the city development.
However recent trends assume transfer of the large enterprises which are the pollution source, and also potential danger to inhabitants in the city boundaries. For the enterprises it is an opportunity to lower expenses due to cheaper lands behind the city boundaries. Besides, many old buildings are not adapted simply for the modern equipment placement and don't allow to expand the production.
The free areas are either built up anew, or will be reoriented in the museums, exhibition complexes, public spaces, inhabited, and also commercial areas. Office buildings will be reoriented in office centers. In Moscow the areas of not operating plants are actively used:
- on the territory of "Moskvich" plant in 2012 the technopolis "Moscow" was created;
- on the territory of the former brewery (subsequently — wine combine) "Moscovskaya Bavaria" in 2007 the Center of modern art "Vinzavod" was created;
- on the territory of the former plant "Khrustalny" after Kalinin in 2009 "Flakon" Design Plant" exhibition trade and office complex was opened;
- "Krasnokholmsky kamvolny combinat" CJSC was reconstructed to the business center "Aurora business park";
- "Krasnaya Roza" weaving mill became the "Krasnaya Roza" business quarter.
The existing objects are quite often used for creation of science and technology parks or industrial parks; such projects are called brownfields (Brownfield). In addition to the industrial object transferred townsite the reason for the brownfield-park creation can be the industrial enterprise area use optimization: installation of modern equipment allows to decrease significantly the used area and the excess areas are leased. An example of such an initiative can become the “Volgograd” industrial park, created on the basis of Volgograd subsidiary of “Severstal-Metize” JSC. For the park creation areas of Volgograd rope plant were used. During the project implementation the plant equipment was replaced with the modern one, production was concentrated in one part of the area, free areas were offered to the residents. Thus, not only the plant workplaces were saved, but the area for investors placing was created. Total amount of investments amounted to 34 million dollars. Industrial park “NIKOHKIM” was created on the basis of Volgograd “Kaustik” plant where chemical cluster was formed. The versatile industrial park "Kineshma" in Ivanovo region functions successfully on the territory of "Avtoagregat" JSC.
Also another situation is possible — the enterprise is transferred to the industrial park, and the free areas are built up anew or will be reoriented. Such a scheme admits to be one of the most convenient ways of production companies moving of the city question solution. The transfer process is actively conducted in Yekaterinburg: by the end of 2013 13 enterprises were taken out of the city boundaries. Transfer of the enterprises is planned in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan, Chelyabinsk.
However the transfer process doesn't assume liberation of the city from industrial facilities; the balance between living, commercial and floor spaces has to remain — within the city the enterprises safe from the ecological point of view, hi-tech, knowledge-intensive productions can be placed.