Potential of Gas Saving in Transport Solutions
It is stated in the research by Intesco Research Group “Market of Energy Saving in Power Industry. Current Situation and Forecast” that losses of energy resources are greatest during transportation and consumption. Such losses amount to about 1.4% of gas and more than 10% of electric power. In Russia gas losses are paid less attention to than in power industry; however, this resource is non-renewable and therefore demands the same close attention.
It is thanks to gas transportation that the monopolist of the Russian gas market could reach about 85% of economy of fuel and energy resources. Building and modernization of the gas distribution infrastructure greatly depend on state decisions. Taking not only the decision about building a new gas pipeline or improving the existing one, but decisions about distributing access to the pipeline network is the prerogative of state corporations.
Russia, however, has rather extensive experience in construction of main pipelines in various climatic conditions. Technologies of design and construction of pipelines in conditions of tundra, permafrost, desert, forest and mountainous areas have been mastered. Greatest problems are associated with construction and operation of gas pipelines in permafrost, in conditions of mountainous areas, water barriers. For example, construction in permafrost suggests laying pipelines not on soil but on piles embedded in soil. Apart from Russia, only one country has similar experience in permafrost construction: climatic conditions in the eastern part of the Russian Federation resemble those in Canada.
Despite rather active development of the market of materials, technologies and equipment, as well as engineering solutions implemented in construction of gas pipelines, a global problem in Russia is depreciation of assets. Because of untimely expansion, reconstruction and modernization of capacities some sections of the gas transport system have deficit of capacities, the degree of depreciation of capital assets reaches 50%.
With the fact that gas fuel accounts for more than a quarter in the structure of energy resources by kinds, quality of infrastructure of its distribution and delivery to the end consumer is a very important factor of energy security of the country. Among main consumers of gas fuel one can name agriculture (25%), manufacturing (30%), processing industries, transport and communications (20% each).
The given figures were calculated by analysts of Intesco Research Group based on official statistics.